From the log of Jane Lyons at Reserva Las Gralarias—
By 3 January 2017, our Hoary Puffleg was back at the feeders on a consistent basis. This rare Chocó endemic hummer nests along Canyon’s Trail but is difficult to see at the feeders until after nesting season. Often described as drab, this hummingbird in the right light is a very pretty, albeit subtle, bird.
We also have had several Giant Antpittas calling their wonderful hypnotic song near the guest houses and which were seen by guests, as well as numerous Yellow-breasted Antpittas waiting for worms at the front gate and on the patios. [See the Late Summer 2016 note below for the full account of our Yellow-breasted and Moustached Antpitta activity.]
December 2016 – Christmas Bird Count – On a day of sun, cloud and mist the total number of bird species recorded at RLG was 163 species – 38% of all the species in the entire Mindo-Tandayapa count area. The three new bird species for the reserve were found by the team led by Marcelo Quipo. The species were Brown-billed Scythebill, Scarlet-rumped Cacique and the rare, endemic and beautiful Indigo Flower-piercer.
The team also found other rarities for the reserve including Scaled Antpitta, Ochre-breasted Antpitta (adult with fledgling), Pacific Tuftedcheek, Orange-breasted Fruiteater and Black-billed Peppershrike. (And a few weeks later Marcelo added Southern Nightingale-Wren to our RLG bird list.)
The CBC team led by Nick Keller found specialties White-rumped Hawk, Wattled Guan, Barred Parakeet, Cloud-forest Pygmy-Owl and White-tailed Hillstar.
Other highlights were 20 species of hummingbirds, including Buff-tailed Coronet, Violet-tailed Sylph, Empress Brilliant and Hoary Puffleg. The birders also tallied 22 Toucan Barbets, 5 species of woodpecker, 14 species of furnariids, 19 individuals of Yellow-breasted Antpitta and 5 total species of Grallaria antpittas, 2 species of manakin, 3 species of fruiteater, and rare species such as Rufous-winged Tyrannulet, Yellow-collared Chlorophonia and Glistening-green Tanager as well as 11 individuals of Beautiful Jay.
The highest number of individuals was 60 White-collared Swift followed by 45 Dusky Bush-Tanager and 39 Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager.
A late afternoon visit to the upper site added Ocellated Tapaculo and Chestnut-crowned Antpitta. The team led by Mauricio Ruano not only recorded 114 species but also filmed a White-nosed Coati (Nasua narica). Many years ago a volunteer had said he saw a coati with a white nose along Sr Tim’s Trail. However, with no photo and no more reports for some 10 years I discarded the record assuming that it must have been one of our ‘regular’ and fairly common Western Mountain (or Andean) Coati (Nasuella olivacea), with perhaps some white on its nose from pollen, fruit, the late afternoon light or the occasional white hairs. However, now we have a video record of what appears to be White-nosed Coati, giving us two species of coati on the reserve.
We have had rather astonishing Spectacled Bear activity between mid-October and end of the year, with 4 trailcam photos and numerous chewed palmito trees and other bear sign along various trails.
On 15 October 2016 we got a great photo of a Spectacled Bear meandering along Canyon’s Trail at 11:03am. One of our older trail cams had been set up there by intern Nick Keller a few weeks earlier.
And, in the midst of all of this, the wonderful northern migrant songbirds made their way back from North America to Las Gralarias! Our first-of-season Blackburnian Warblers, male and female, were spotted on 1 October along Puma Hideout Trail and also near the guest houses.
Mid-October brought us a wonderful visit by very long-time (34 years!) friends and fellow conservationists Paul and Georgean Kyle from Texas. Authors of several books on Chimney Swifts, they were especially excited to see our White-collared and Chestnut-collared Swifts, as well as a good variety of our resident cloud forest birds and even a giant earthworm. Thanks to them also for carrying down one of our new trail cams.
In early October, Reserva Las Gralarias hosted a group of herpetologists from Costa Rica. Led by Raby Nunez, six field biologists visited us from Sierpe Frogs Costa Rica. They birded by day and searched for frogs and other herps by night.
Also in early October, a producer and cameraman, along with their 28 crates of equipment, visited RLG for two weeks to film our frogs, other critters, and habitat for an upcoming BBC TV documentary on mountains, the Andes, and cloud forests. They especially focused on the amazing Shape-shifting Frog discovered at RLG by Kathy and Tim Krynak, our longtime volunteers and LGF President and Secretary. This species of frog, officially known as Pristimantis mutabilis (and what was our very own “Punk Rocker”), was described in 2015 and is the only known vertebrate that can change its body shape. This, among many other creatures that inhabit the cloud forest, has become a symbol of not only how diverse the cloud forest biome is, but also how little is known about it. They also brought us a copy of Life Story, a seven-episode documentary which featured some of our RLG hummingbirds filmed in 2012.
In September I was invited by the Municipality of San Miguel de los Bancos (our county seat) to give my thoughts and ideas on their first city park. The park is being developed to recuperate and regenerate a local stream that had been used as a trash dump for many years but still maintained a small population of iguanas and other native fauna. I met with the city officials in charge of the project and visited the park on 23 September. I was very impressed with their serious efforts and success with a very tiny budget and a host of enthusiastic volunteers. They said they consider RLG as the leader of revegetation efforts in the county and hence wanted my input into their similar efforts. It was exciting to meet with such dedicated and energetic young people, and it bodes very well for the city that now other neighborhoods are requesting their own local eco-parks!
Nick Keller joined our staff on 15 September to work as an intern managing our trail cams which continue to give us photos of our surprising yet difficult-to-observe mammal life here. Thanks to Nick and the Las Gralarias Foundation for providing new trail cams for our mammal monitoring. Nick also helps feed our ever-hungrier antpittas (now including Giant Antpitta), hummers, and tanagers, etc., and is responsible for bird monitoring, updating our trail map, and guiding visitors, both birders and herpers. He has made some excellent observations in his first month, including a new bird species for the reserve–a Broad-billed Motmot on Brother’s Trail at 1800m elevation, which is a 100m elevational range extension for this beautiful bird.
Late Summer 2016 – For several years, RLG caretaker, Segundo Imba, has been successful at feeding some of our antpittas. This type of endeavor has now become fairly common at various birding lodges but for numerous reasons, was never anything that we actively tried to do at RLG. One day, though, I saw a Yellow-breasted Antpitta (YBA) in a garden behind the kitchen. When a few days later several of us saw one in front of the kitchen, we decided to throw a few worms to it in hopes of keeping it nearby and easy for our birding guests to see. Named “Yellow” by Segundo, that bird became a regularly photographed celebrity here at RLG. “Yellow” eventually moved down towards the creek though continues to call his very identifiable version of a typical YBA song. Just when we were ready to take worms off the menu, in August this year, a Moustached Antpitta appeared near the entry gate and in front of the kitchen. So of course we have had to feed it also. Worms are back!
Some other nice sightings in August included a very territorial male Powerful Woodpecker at the guest house, our always-favorite Plate-billed Mountain-Toucans, many tanagers at our fruit feeders including the timid Blue-capped Tanager, and, for those who ventured out at night, an adorable family of Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrants.
In late August, we were happy to host at RLG a group of dedicated bird photographers from the island of Taiwan and mainland China.
1 August 2016 – Three–yes, THREE!!!!–White-faced Nunbirds were seen on one branch along – where else? – Nunbird Ridge Trail. Two were probably juveniles since the species is known to nest in May (from the one nest ever documented).
July was the month of male and female Crested Quetzals beginning to nest again at RLG. These beautiful birds return in early summer every year to nest and rear their speckled fledglings which look like Scaled Fruiteaters, except with quetzal-green backs.
The end of July brought us very vocal Cloud-Forest Pygmy-Owls, Club-winged Manakins along Parrot Hill Trail, and a pair of Crested Guan along Brother’s Trail. Daily we saw Tayras, Sickle-winged Guans and Toucan Barbets as well as many doves, tanagers and brush-finches at our banana feeders.
Update on our Lyre-tailed Nightjars – All summer our Lyre-tailed Nightjars have been observed around the guest houses. Two males were calling and one male was regularly perched on one wall while a female perched on a different wall. The female can offer something of a show as she occasionally jumps straight up for almost twometers and emits a loud “pok” and then settles to her perch again, giving the overall impression of a very large kernel of popping popcorn. On the evening of 31 July we saw two females on the same wall, perhaps one being the offspring of the adult female. One also made the “pok…pok” sound.
4 July 2016 – A nest of White-tailed Tyrannulet was noticed by guest Janet Duerr while birding from our staff building rooftop. The nest was some 25m above ground on a moss-covered branch of a Croton (Euphorbiaceae) tree. Although the species is widespread and commonly seen at RLG, no published description of the nest of this species exists.
While monitoring the nest I saw an adult feeding the one nestling snuggled inside the moss. Two days later the nestling was obviously beginning to want to stretch its wings and fly. However, it ended up on the ground below the tree. With scarcely audible chirps the adults and their fledgling stayed in contact, and the adults flew down to the ground to feed the young bird. The first day out of the nest it could not fly well, but by the second day it was able to fly in a straight line and was still being well tended by both adults. We are delighted to have these pretty flycatchers rearing their young in our gardens.
19 June – We heard the first-of-season song of a male Crested Quetzal. These quetzals come to RLG early in the summer to nest. They are not well-received by our resident Golden-headed Quetzals but for the rest of us they are a sure sign of our summer’s delightful and very special treats.
12 June – We were surprised by the appearance of a beautiful and uncommon lizard, Stenocercus varius, who ventured out to enjoy the sun behind the patio at the guest house. An endemic species of the Pacific Andes of Ecuador, this Cloud-forest Whorltail-Iguana is classified as Vulnerable and in the Mindo area has only been found at Las Gralarias.
4 June 2016 – Monkeys!!! A troop of 4-5 monkeys was observed in mid-afternoon by guests from the patio behind the guest house. Scrambling through the tops of the trees one of the monkeys was seen well. This observation adds a few more details to the previous four sightings, always too brief for photos but always described as 4-5 individuals, large, brown (definitely not black), long tail and ‘simple’ (i.e., no color patterns or obvious adornments such as ruffs or beards, etc), no sounds made.
They always swing/scamper quickly high in trees making a lot of movement in the branches which is what draws the attention of the viewers. We hope to someday get a photo of them to be sure of the ID!
Early June – Keen to have one more nest of soft moss before it dries out over the summer, our hummingbirds gathered spider webs and bits of moss to construct their last nests of the season. By 4 June a female Buff-tailed Coronet had her nest ready and a few weeks afterwards was feeding 2 nestlings. Buff-tailed CoronetWe also watched panicked fledglings of Gray-breasted Wood-Wren and White-sided Flower-piercer as they skittered like mice around the patios. And we were very excited to see Arrayán seedlings! In early December 2015 we collected the seeds from anArrayán tree that we had planted as a seedling about 11 years go. We planted seeds in our seedbed and almost exactly six months later the delicate red stem and shiny leaves of this myrtle (Myristacaceae discolor) appeared. We now have two generations of this important primary forest hardwood helping to regenerate previously pastured areas of the reserve. And even though the fruits have a very sweet fleshy covering, we now know the Arrayán seeds do not need to be scarified or eaten by anything in order to sprout.
First half of June – As soon as the summer sun dominates the mornings many critters are quick to take advantage: birds preening high in the trees in the sunshine, butterflies flitting through the gardens, Roadside Hawks calling as they soar overhead, large kettles of Swallow-tailed Kite circling low in the sky prior to their migration eastward. And all of a sudden there are flowers in full bloom, especially the Asteraceae that our butterflies love, while the flowering orchids decline and the forest mushrooms fade.
But no doubt our best and most exciting sighting was of a male Lyre-tailed Nightjar regularly perched on a wall in front of the door at the guest house, even flying and displaying over the cars parked nearby! By 15 June we also watched a female feeding and perched as the male sang its rather bizarre song.
Last week of May – The practically silent, rare and enigmatic Olivaceous Piha was observed several times along Parrot Hill Trail. Plus we were treated to wonderful views of flocks of Barred Parakeet, Maroon-tailed Parakeet, Blue-fronted Parrotlet, Red-billed Parrot and two flocks of 18 and 21 very noisy individuals of Scaly-naped Amazon.
22 May 2016 – Volunteer Ray So released the final 17 tadpoles of the 24 Centrolene peristictum glassfrog eggs that hatched in our lab. Not much larger than an eyelash, these tadpoles are the next generation of the small glassfrogs found in Lucy’s Creek and famous for the male’s careful cleaning and maintenance of several egg masses laid on one-creekside leaf.
May 2016: We finished up springtime with a week-long Tropical Biology course from Grand Valley State University (Michigan, USA) led by Dr. Eric Snyder, Dr Katherine Krynak and Las Gralarias Foundation President Tim Krynak. It was very exciting to see so many young students become enthusiastic tropical field biologists, studying aquatic insects in our streams, hummingbirds in our forests, finding surprising numbers of anoles asleep among the vegetation, watching bats in the gardens, frogs in the creeks, epiphytes on the trees and so much more.
Exciting Sightings Kicked off the New Year
1 January 2016, 11.30am – A first-of-season Swallow-tailed Kite was seen flying above the treetops at RLG. This is a migrant species that comes back to the Mindo area during the rainier season to nest in tall open palms and other trees often in groups of 10+ pairs. After nesting, the species normally leaves the Mindo area by late August.
1 January 2016, 8.00am – Numerous small noisy flocks of Barred Parakeet flying low over RLG. A widespread but almost impossible bird to see perched, this parakeet is abundant in our areas during the first half of the year. Considered rare and unpredictable and possibly a bamboo specialist, small groups can be seen – with luck and good eyesight – feeding quietly in low thick bushy green vegetation.
1 January 2016, 7.15am – A new “yard bird” to begin the new year! A Pale-eyed Thrush was singing his rather strange song next to the kitchen. Considered scarce and local and having been recorded only occasionally in the lower part of RLG, this is the first time it has been recorded at this higher elevation (2068m) at RLG.
The Reserva Las Gralarias 2015 Christmas Bird Count was the Best Ever!
Eight birders chalked up an impressive 137 species in just one day on the reserve. That’s 30 more species than the 2014 count and half of the total number of species recorded on the reserve!
The three teams were led by Gabriel Bucheli, Mauricio Ruano and Segundo Imba plus Jane Lyons counting at the feeders and around the houses. Each team covered a quadrant of the lower reserve and then a late afternoon visit to the upper property added such goodies as Chestnut-crowned Antpitta and Ocellated Tapaculo.
To everyone’s delight, Mauricio was able to get a fantastic video of the tapaculo; seemingly unaware of being filmed, the bird preened and vocalized to another tapaculo calling in the distance. View Mauricio’s stunning video of this elusive bird!
The weather included pretty much everything possible and the birds were amazing. Highlights included: Wattled Guan, Dark-backed Wood-Quail, 4 species of psittacines, 18 species of hummingbirds (wow!), Crested Quetzal, White-faced Nunbird, 11 species of furnariids, 4 species of Grallaria antpittas, 13 species of flycatcher, 3 species of fruiteater, 3 individuals of Olivaceous Piha, 2 species of manakin, and 19 species of tanager including the gorgeous Glistening-green Tanager! The team is now determined to do even better next year–as if that is even possible. The 2016 Christmas Count is scheduled for 17 December. We are also thinking about doing a frog count as our frogs were very vocal the morning of the bird count.
9 December 2015, 3pm – After looking for 10+ years for a nest of our most abundant hummingbird, the Buff-tailed Coronet, – FINALLY on 9 December 2015 – one was found by RLG caretaker Segundo Imba near the guest house! At about 4 meters (12+ feet) above the ground, no wonder it has been so hard to find.
Another new species from Reserva Las Gralarias!
December, 2015 — Another new frog species has been described from RLG! This new rain frog, known as Pristimantis pahuma was described in the paper Hutter and Guayasamin, 2015, Neotropical Biodiversity, 1: 42. The main field work was done at RLG and the holotype was collected at RLG on our upper Santa Rosa property at 2235 meters elevation. As with two other new frog species described from Las Gralarias, this new rain frog was discovered initially by noticing differing songs among one species, in this case of Pristimantis calcarulatus. This led to collection of bioacoustic data and eventually molecular data which confirmed that what had been thought was and what appears morphologically to be one species is in fact two species. This discovery also underlines the importance of in-depth research of the species in the field – song, behavior, and, such as in the case of the recently described P. mutabilis, potential physical changes. It also points to the ever-changing taxonomy of Andean frog species!
6 December 2015, 10.28am — The rarest hummer in our area is the Hoary Puffleg, a fairly nondescript and timid hummer that we have been fortunate to have visit our feeders on an irregular basis for many years. For some reason, the resident hummers just do not tolerate a Hoary Puffleg, and they all attack it as soon as it arrives. Though not prone to fighting, the puffleg does defend itself a bit by showing its white leg puffs but usually it just flees. This season it appears to be a bit more aggressive or at least stays hidden near the feeders trying to avoid the bullies. It now even feeds at the feeders in what was previously our barbecue pit.
26-27 November 2015, mid-morning — I had known for years that at least one Barn Owl had been at RLG because I found the feather of one, and having worked extensively with Barn Owls in the US, I recognized the feather. But no one had ever seen or heard the species at RLG–until now! Finally, we have confirmed a Barn Owl on its day roost along Crossover Trail. A visiting birder snapped several good photos and commented on how large the bird was compared to the same species in Europe. The Barn Owl in Ecuador is Tyto alba contempta, a race confined to western Colombia, Venezuela, mostly western Ecuador, and Peru.
25 November, 11.40am — An amazing larva was found by our cleaning staff on the walkway near the lab. The larva was attached by a bit of its own silk to a Croton sp. leaf that had fallen from an overhead tree. It had a prominent “X” pattern on its dorsum and thorny projections on its “face.” When disturbed, the larva reared up, expelled a strange odor, and ejected a bifurcated purple tongue-like structure.
Thanks go to Dr. Gunnar Brehm of the Phyletisches Museum in Jena, Germany, who identified the creature as a larva of the family Papilionidae, the swallowtail butterflies. The tongue-like structure is called an osmeterium, which is a defensive organ unique to the family Papilionidae. We have only recorded two species of swallowtails at RLG, Pterourus cacicus and Eurytides servile, and it is nice to know these beautiful butterflies are reproducing here.
The only question is: what is this larva mimicking with a big ‘X’ on its back? In the Amazon, larvae are known to mimic small arboreal and highly venomous fer-de-lance snakes. Hence, this larva’s potential mimicry of an X-decorated Bothrops sp. (fer-de-lance) snake is a bit disconcerting. Are there possibly small arboreal Bothrops in the cloud forest?
22 November 2015, 9.40am — A chick of the Common Potoo was found by birders along Guan Gulch Trail. The downy chick with just the beginning of a tail was trying to look like the top of a dead stump. Potoos are nocturnal and known for spending their days perched upright on tall trees or even on fence posts and appearing to be part of the wood itself. The female lays one egg on the top of a stump and the egg hatches there. This chick is now large enough that the mother no longer fits on the stump but she no doubt is keeping a close (and not quite closed) eye nearby.
17 November 2015, 7am — I first heard an unknown (to me) owl calling on 11 July. I told our caretaker Segundo Imba to try to get a recording of it when he was staying at night at the reserve. He finally managed to get a very good recording of it and birding guide Marcelo Quipo identified it as Rufous-banded Owl, a new species for RLG and our seventh owl species! Although regularly seen and heard on the east slope of Ecuador, this owl is considered rare to uncommon on the northwest slope.
16 November 2015, 1.30pm — Two Crested Guans were seen feeding along lower Brothers Trail. This sighting along with recent records of Wattled Guans and our regularly occurring Sickle-winged Guans is exciting as together they indicate that all of these large birds, historically hunted, are at least stable on the reserve. Let’s hope the two Crested Guans were in fact a pair.
1 November 2015, 8.am — Our “resident pair” of migratory Blackburnian Warblers were finally again seen feeding in the tall Croton sp. trees near the kitchen. Of course we do not know if it is the same pair that returns every fall, or even if they are really a pair, but it is always exciting to see any of these beautiful northern migrants once again at RLG.
18 October, 7.15am – Amazingly vocal male Crested Quetzal viewed perfectly front, side and back, around the guest houses. Crippling scope views thanks to Marcelo Quipo.
15-18 October, 8-11.00am – Green-fronted Lancebill seen at a flowering Psammisia ecuadorensis shrub of the Ericaceae family about 150m above the guest house at 2100m, found by Marcelo Quipo. Very nice record!
11 October, all morning – A banner day for birders at RLG! Both Scaled Fruiteater and the very rare Hoary Puffleg were seen at the guest house. Also, first records of Lemon-rumped Tanager Green-fronted Lancebill (very common at lower elevations) and Rufous-chested Tanager at our banana feeders. Plus first-of-season northern migrants Blackburnian Warbler and Red-eyed Vireo seenalong our trails. Finally, a Rothschild’s Porcupine was observed feeding in a tree!
5 October 2015, 11.30am – A mother membracid caring for her tiny, spiny young was found on a Euphorbiaceae tree near the staff house. This amazing family Membracidae (relatives of cicadas and planthoppers) is otherwise known as treehoppers. Our species is similar to a Thorn Mimic (Umbonia spinosa) and the lime green females are ever vigilant, protecting their young by flicking their stiff ‘tail’ at any approaching ant or other bothersome intruder and quickly tossing it off the branch.
4 October 2015, 8.15am – Our exciting sightings are not limited to our cloud forest fauna but also include the amazing flora found here. By late summer we’re excited to see how much our newly planted and carefully tended trees and plants have grown over the growing season. The very slow-growing and long-lived hardwood called Cloud Forest Mahogany (Carapa sp.) sprouts new droopy brown leaves that appear dead instead of tender, thus discouraging hungry insects.
4 October 2015, 7.45am – First record of Wedge-billed Hummingbird (female) at our feeders. Although this is a species we see on occasion in the lower parts of the reserve, it has never been recorded at our hummingbird feeders before. A nice addition to our feeder list, which now totals 24 species of hummers recorded at our feeders! We also have 3 species to be confirmed and one species, Green-fronted Lancebill, that is seen mostly along Lucy’s Creek but has not (yet!) been recorded at our feeders.
2 October 2015, 10.45am – First record of Rusty-margined Flycatcher at RLG. Very vocal individual at the guest house and up to 2100m elevation, although it is supposed to occur only below 1400m.
29 September 2015, 4.30pm – Commonly called the Spiky Lirecko (Lepidoblepharis conolepis), this tiny dwarf gecko was found wiggling along the outer guest house wall. Considered uncommon, this endemic species is usually found in leaf litter in cooler forested zones between 1600-2200m in the Pacific Andes in Ecuador. In the Mindo area, it has been found only at RLG.
20 September 2015, 8.40am – Birds are on the move!! First record of a Black-capped Tanager (female) at our banana feeders.
9 August 2015, 11.20am – A banded adult male Masked Flower-piercer was seen behind the guest house feeding at the hummingbird feeders. During our 10-year banding project we banded only three of this species, all adult males. Two were banded in June and September 2001 along Entry Trail in the lower part of the reserve and a third was banded by Tim and Kathy Krynak on 26 May 2008, about 300 meters west of the recent sighting and at the same elevation. Assuming this latter was the bird recently observed means it is at least 7.5-8 years old and is still living in the general vicinity where it was originally banded.
2 August 2015, morning – Two female and one male Club-winged Manakin observed near the guest house. This Chocó endemic manakin forms large summertime leks at RLG and these were the first to be seen this summer.
2 August 2015, 4.30pm – Jane watched a rare Olinguito as it fed among the branches of a tall unknown species of tree above the guest house. This first confirmed sighting at RLG of the newest carnivorous mammal described in the Americas lasted about twenty minutes as the animal fed on tiny fruits, drank from a bromeliad and ran up and down the branch. In the ten years we have owned this property this is the first time this tree has dropped fruits, so the next day we collected them by the hundreds and are now growing them in our seedling bed in hopes of replanting them during the growing season to attract more Olinguitos and to eventually identify the species of tree.
27 July 2015, 8am – A small seemingly dead lizard was found by caretaker Segundo Imba on one of our patios. It turned out to be a young Echinosaura brachycephala, or Blunt Hedgehog-Lizard. Endemic to the Pacific slopes of Ecuador and known only from 6 localities, this lizard is dependent on chilly well-preserved montane forests. Only a few dozen of this species have ever been seen, only two individuals are known from the Mindo area and those two are from our patios at RLG. The first found on 13 January 2012 was an adult and this second one found was a smaller and much younger individual. It was found within 3 meters of where the adult had been found. We placed it in a sunny spot and it recuperated and wiggled away. The next day another one was also observed nearby, seemingly larger, but could have been the same individual. Regardless, it is nice to know we have a reproducing population of this very rare and rather bizarre lizard.
23 March 2015
The Las Gralarias Foundation is thrilled to publish the Amphibian Survival Alliance (ASA) press release heralding the discovery of a “Shape-shifting “punk rocker” frog by researchers working at Las Gralarias:
Scientists have discovered a frog in Ecuador that can do what no other vertebrate has ever been documented to do—rapidly change skin texture from smooth to spiny.
Researchers from Reserva Las Gralarias, Universidad Indoamérica and Tropical Herping in Ecuador revealed their findings March 20 in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, challenging the traditional scientific knowledge and underscoring the critical need for habitat protection in the Ecuadorian Andes. Farming practices, urban sprawl and mining continue to put pressure on the Ecuadorian cloud forests.
“These types of new discoveries, those that defy—and improve—our understanding of the natural world, are only possible as long as we protect the most biodiverse corners of our planet,” said Robin Moore, conservation officer at the Amphibian Survival Alliance. “If we close the door to new discoveries, we may never be able to fully understand
the extent of what we’ve lost.”
Katherine Krynak, a PhD student at Case Western Reserve University and her husband Tim Krynak, project manager at Cleveland Metroparks Natural Resources Division, discovered the new species, called the Mutable rainfrog (Pristimantis mutabilis), in 2006 at nature preserve Reserva Las Gralarias. The couple nicknamed the amphibian the “punk rocker” frog for its thorn-like spines. It wasn’t until three years later that the couple discovered the species’ secret shape-shifting skills, which may help the marble-size frog be better camouflaged in its mossy surroundings.
“Discovering a new species is incredible enough,” Katherine said. “You wouldn’t think anything could top that. And then you discover that it also changes shape, suddenly growing spines that then disappear. I just kept asking ‘did that really just happen?’”
The papers’ authors worked to confirm that the Mutable frog is a new species by conducting morphological and genetic tests and studying the frogs’ calls. They found that the Sobetes robber frog (Pristimantis sobetes), a related species, can change its skin texture, too. According to paper co-author Carl R. Hutter, from the University of Kansas, the next steps in the research are to determine if additional species share this ability and then to look for the physiological mechanisms that allow the species to do what scientists once thought only invertebrates such as octopuses and cuttlefish could do.
The Krynaks helped form Las Gralarias Foundation, an Amphibian Survival Alliance Partner, to support the reserve’s conservation efforts. They plan to continue surveying Mutable rain frogs and to work with fellow researchers to document their behavior, lifecycle, and to estimate their population, all in effort to better conserve both this paradigm-shifting species and its habitat.